IPA Independent Reviews Recommendation Tracker

Over the years, the City of Pasadena has obtained independent reviews of certain critical incidents and the Police Department's Use of Force policy.  Since 2020, the City has had ongoing police oversight through two means.  First, an Independent Police Auditor (IPA) has unimpeded access to all Police Department personnel complaints and investigations for auditing and reporting purposes, and reviews all categorical uses of force to assess whether the investigation into a use of force was complete, thorough, objective, and fair.  Second, the Community Police Oversight Commission (CPOC), working closely with the IPA, has the authority to make recommendations regarding the ongoing operations of the Police Department.

To ensure transparency and accountability, this recommendations tracker will monitor and report on the status of each recommendation made in an independent review. The recommendations can be sorted by the report it came from, the recommendation type, and the implementation status.

Read full independent reviews.  Learn more about the CPOC.

Recommendations Tracker

Updated May 2024

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Case/ReportReferenceTypeRecommendationImplementedComments
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#1Investigation - Critical IncidentBecause in McDade, the Department's training personnel were not called to roll out to the crime scene, PPD should again consider revising protocols to ensure that training personnel are part of the rollout team for officer- involved shootings.Partially - Policy RequiredSee Barnes Recommendation No. 1. Potential policy change from "may" to "will."
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#2Collective Bargaining Agreement, Investigation - Critical IncidentPasadena PD and the City should revisit the current Letter of Agreement with the Pasadena Peace Officers Association requiring the Department to preview recorded evidence with officers prior to being interviewed about officer-involved shootings (as they did in the McDade case) and should strive to develop protocols that would prevent officers from previewing recorded evidence prior to their interviews.Pending ActionIPA to determine status of next session of negotiations in 2026
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#3Investigation - Critical IncidentTo avoid the use of telephonic interviews as occurred in the McDade case, PPD should develop protocols discouraging the use of telephonic interviews in officer-involved shooting investigations. When in person interviews prove to be impracticable, the investigative file should explain why.FullyNeed to review next completed OIS investigation for continued compliance.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#4Training - Critical Incident InvestigationsBecause in the McDade case, despite our suggestions, witnesses were not asked questions that could have supported or contradicted involved officers' version of events, Pasadena PD should design investigative protocols that would ensure that witnesses were questioned about observations that could do so.RejectedNeed to review next completed OIS investigation to ensure questions relating to tactics, policy and equipment are asked of all witnesses.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#5Investigation - AdministrativeBecause in the McDade case the Department failed to conduct an administrative investigation, the Department should develop protocols requiring that in every use of deadly force incident, Pasadena PD should conduct an administrative investigation that, at a minimum, includes follow-up interviews of the involved officers regarding tactical decision making and collects sufficient additional evidence so that the executive team may identify and assess performance, supervision and equipment issues based on the involved officers' articulated mindsetFullyNeed to review next completed OIS investigation for continued compliance.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#6Administrative ReviewBecause the independent reviewers in the McDade shooting were not invited to attend the Department's administrative review, should PPD engage in future independent reviews, it should reconsider inviting such reviewers to attend those reviews.FullyOngoing best practice approach by PPD confirmed by IPA.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#7Training - OtherThe Department should brief the involved officers and issue a training bulletin on the tactical considerations and potential disadvantages in operating a patrol car while holding a firearm in one hand.FullyResponse to Public Safety Committee. Concepts incorporated into EVOC (emergency vehicle obstacle course) training. Did not issue specific bulletin.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#8Training - Other, Policy - OtherConsidering what occurred in the McDade incident, the Department should devise protocols and provide training on those protocols that would require immediate radio notification if officers who are following a suspect collide with a structure, however minor.FullyPolicy 314 Vehicle Pursuits properly instructs the secondary officer to broadcast location/direction/event information while primary officer focuses on apprehension.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#9Training - OtherThe Department should brief the involved officers in the McDade shooting and devise a training bulletin for all PPD officers advising them of the Department's foot pursuit policy, the tactical disadvantages of splitting from a partner, the policy's requirement that officers broadcast whether they believe the suspect is armed, and the tactical concerns in closing distance on a believed to be armed suspect.FullySee McClain OIS Recommendation #18 & 19.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#10Training - Other, Policy - OtherTo avoid the officer and public safety issues that arose in this case as a result of the decision to attempt to cut off Mr. McDade and box him in, PPD should circumscribe its tactical policies and create training that would prohibit a "cut off' and "box in" maneuver when pursuing suspects believed to be armed.RejectedResponse to Public Safety - "department disagrees." Policy 314 Vehicle Pursuits - "As with all intervention techniques, pursuing officers should obtain supervisor approval before attempting to box a suspect vehicle during a pursuit. The use of such a technique must be carefully coordinated with all involved units, taking into consideration the circumstances and conditions presented at the time as well as the potential risk of injury to officers, the public and occupants of the pursued vehicle."
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#11Training - OtherPPD should brief the involved officer and issue a roll call briefing and/or training bulletin regarding the need under stressful circumstances to remember to place your car in parkRejectedResponse to Public Safety - EVOC (emergency vehicle obstacle course) covers driving under stress. But no specific training on putting the car in park.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#12TechnologyThe City should consider whether it should allocate funding for a new mobile audio video system to be installed in PPD patrol cars.FullyIPA follow up purchase of new Taser-BWC policy
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#13Policy - OtherBecause in McDade the involved officers chose not to respond with lights and siren and therefore their in- car audio video system was not automatically activated and because they did not manually activate the system, the Department should devise policy requiring manual activation of the in car audio video system when an officer is responding to felony calls or pursuing a person believed to be armed.RejectedSee IPA UOF Inv. Recommendation #5 for related action item.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#14TechnologyPPD should equip its officers with mobile audio devices.FullyBody Worn Camera Policy 450 "Each uniformed member (Officers, Detention Officers, Park Safety, and Community Safety Officers) shall be responsible for making sure that he/she is equipped with a BWC issued by the Department, and that the recorder is in good working order prior to each shift."
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#15Policy - OtherBecause in the McDade shooting, no involved officers activated their mobile audio devices, PPD should devise policy specifying when officers are required to activate mobile audio devices.FullyIPA to revisit whether more specific BWC policy is required. See IPA Recommendation #5
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#16Investigation - Critical IncidentCrime scene photographs should be carefully reviewed by the investigators. If there is evidence of items having been moved, inquiry should be undertaken into that movement and case notes should explain the circumstances behind the movement.FullyOfficers are now trained not to move any vehicles that were used during an OIS except to allow medical access, as occurred in McDade. If vehicles are moved, it is now documented. Vehicle was moved in McClain shooting; moving vehicles is discouraged unless for officer safety reasons.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#17Investigation - Critical IncidentBecause in the McDade shooting, the involved officers were not interviewed until thirty-six hours after the incident, Pasadena PD should devise protocols so that interviews of involved officers are conducted no more than a few hours after the incident.RejectedIPA supports timely interviews of witness and subject officers in OIS cases. To be monitored on an ongoing basis.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#18Administrative ReviewAs was eventually done in the McDade review, a robust and detailed administrative memorandum should be timely prepared that documents the discussion, issues identified, and determinations by the Review Board with regard to tactical decision-making, policy concerns, supervision, equipment, post incident response and assessment of the internal investigations.FullyOngoing review of OIS administrative reviews.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#19Administrative ReviewPasadena PD's critical incident administrative review process should include a documented, tailored and detailed action plan designed to target and address any issues involving tactics, supervision, training, equipment, or post-incident response or investigative issues.FullyOngoing review of OIS administrative reviews.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#20Administrative ReviewThe critical incident review action plan should include as a necessary component that individual feedback is provided to its involved officers and any other actions of PPD personnel regarding decision-making and issues identified during the internal review.FullyOngoing review of OIS administrative reviews.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#21Administrative Review, Training - UOFThe critical incident review action plan should include as a necessary component the creation of a training bulletin that provides insight to all PPD personnel issues and challenges identified during the internal review.FullyNeed to review UOFRB findings regularly for compliance.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#22Administrative ReviewThe critical incident review action plan should include the assignment of tasks to PPD and include a report back date when the Review Board should reconvene and receive feedback about the efficacy of the actions ordered.RejectedIPA to verify PPDfollows up on UOFRB recommendations. Creation of adjutant position for DC could assist in impementation efforts.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#23Administrative ReviewOnce concerning officer tactical decision making is identified such as the involved officers: (1) not successfully broadcasting their observations of McDade being armed when they were following him in the police vehicle, (2) not communicating with each other regarding their apprehension plan, (3) continuing to pursue the suspect aggressively, including traversing an admittedly unsafe narrow throughway, (4) the driving officer deciding to take his gun out thus making difficult driving maneuvers with one hand, (5) failing to reevaluate the safeness of their actions after colliding the patrol car with a building wall, (6) failing to broadcast the traffic collision, (7) splitting partners without effective communication resulting in unclear understandings about their next moves, (8) the passenger officer deciding to chase an armed suspect on foot with the intent to apprehend rather than the preferred and safer goal of containment,FullyThis recommendation is more technical advice rather than an action item, and appears to address the concept of "officer created jeopardy." PPD reports that tactics and de-escalation analysis are part of their force reviews. This will be a focus of further reviews.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#24Administrative ReviewIn reviewing officer-involved shootings, PPD should recognize the strong correlation between officer tactical decision-making that is inconsistent with principles of officer and public safety and the eventual perceived need to use deadly force and use that principle, consistent with recent California Supreme Court jurisprudence, to assess and evaluate officer decision-making.FullyThis recommendation is more technical advice rather than an action item, and appears to address the concept of "officer created jeopardy" or failure to de-escalate. PPD reports that tactics and de-escalation analysis are part of their force reviews. This will be a focus of further reviews.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#25Training - UOFThe Department should continue to work to create a culture where officers are encouraged to use tactical proficiencies and decision-making consistent with principles of officer safety to dictate desired outcomes.FullyThis recommendation is more technical advice and PPD reports that this is a significant goal of POST and PPD training. This will be a focus of further reviews.
McDade 2014McDadeOIR#26TransparencyThe Department and the City should cement its commitment to transparency by authorizing release of a factual, analytical, public, and independent report that permits its public and stakeholders the ability to determine for themselves how the incident unfolded, how well the Department investigates and reviews officer-involved shootings, how well the Department holds involved personnel accountable, and how well the Department develops learning for itself and its officers in response to them.FullyIPA to confer with PD as to next OIS investigation.
Thomas 2016ThomasNPF#1Training - UOF, TechnologyThe PPD should review training curriculum to increase the use of Tactical Decision Games18 that challenge participants to successfully resolve problems through quick, effective decision making. Non- technical skills such as leadership ability, communication skills, situation awareness and decision-making are critical to police officers in emergency situations. Tactical Decision Games have shown success in training responders in various industries to prepare for emergency situations that are characterized by ill-structured, uncertain, dynamic risky environments; shifting, ill-defined or competing goals; and time constraints.19 The use of Tactical Decision Games will help the PPD and city to be better prepared for and respond to officer involved critical incidents, large scale events, as well as man-made and natural disasters.FullyIPA to monitor training and review Per Forma app.
Thomas 2016ThomasNPF#2Tactics - Deescalation, Training - UOFThe PPD should use this incident as a case study and increase the number of hours dedicated to de-escalation during crisis intervention training (CIT) courses, or create separate training dedicated to de-escalation. CIT is critical, but it is not always sufficient to produce the best outcomes in situations involving people who have a mental illness, under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs, or are otherwise in crisis and behaving erratically or dangerously toward themselves or others. De-escalation training should focus on recognition of persons in crisis, tactical communication, and safe tactics as part of an overall integrated strategy designed to slow the incident and produce better outcomes.FullyOngoing review of PPD training & UOF cases.
Thomas 2016ThomasNPF#3Training - UOF, TechnologyThe PPD should review research related to use of force as well as department data to determine frequency and effectiveness of less lethal weapons. If appropriate, the results of the review should be used to modify training and less lethal options available to personnel. While there are no national rules on police use of less lethal weapons like CEWs, national best practices can help to guide department practices.22 Regular reviews of department data is valuable to identify trends, anomalies, or other findings over time, and to inform decision making specific to the department.23 Likewise, regular audits of CEW data can check to ensure the weapons are in proper condition and information obtained can be reconciled with existing use of force reports for accountability.24FullyOngoing review of UOF cases.
Thomas 2016ThomasNPF#4TechnologyThe PPD should broadly deploy less lethal devices that allow for greater distance between officers and suspects. While the CEW is effective in reducing injuries to suspects and officers in resistive situations,25 the use when a suspect is armed with a weapon often results in officers getting too close to the suspect. This may increase the threat to the officers, community, and suspect. Potential options should include impact munitions26 as well as longer distance applications of chemical agents such as pepper balls.FullyOngoing review of PD training and UOF cases.
Thomas 2016ThomasNPF#5Administrative ReviewThe Internal PPD use of force review should have a member, or members, of the Review Board assigned to "Red Team" the incident regardless of the Board's opinion. They should be encouraged to explore alternatives and feel comfortable challenging the organization to make it better. The private sector, in companies such as IBM, and government agencies like the Central Intelligence Agency and Sandia National Laboratories have been using "Red Teams" for years to improve their organizations. The United States Marine Corps describes the process "as a bright light we shine on ourselves to expose areas where we can improve effectiveness."29RejectedNo Action.
Thomas 2016ThomasNPF#6TransparencyThe Police Department should publish use of force review board findings while complying with the confidentially requirements mandated in law. For example, during a compelled statement of a police officer that could lead to punitive action, certain reports may be deemed and kept confidential. Such records should remain confidential, but the general findings may still be publishable. Many reviews following critical incidents have used interviews to identify new areas of interest and to inform findings but have kept interviewee names confidential.30 Protecting interview confidentiality can help to promote openness and honesty while pursuing a comprehensive analysis.FullyOngoing review
Thomas 2016ThomasNPF#7Investigation - Critical IncidentIf the PPD choses to continue with LASD a comprehensive Memorandum of Understanding {MOU) with the LASD should be established that includes roles and responsibilities for each agency. MOUs are valuable means of clearly delineating roles and responsibilities along with establishing other important aspects of the partnership.32 The MOU should include a member of the PPD as an investigator/liaison that has immediate access to the investigation and is able to provide appropriate information to the Chief of Police or designee. Receiving timely information from the investigation would help department leaders make more informed decisions.RejectedNone. PPD has returned OIS/Critical Incident investigations to PPD Homicide Unit. No MOU with LA County Sheriff is needed. California AG is now in charge of investigations of police uses of deadly force against unarmed persons.
Thomas 2016ThomasNPF#8Investigation - Critical IncidentShould PPD desire to create a regional critical incident investigative collaborative, the tasks discussed in recommendation 7 above should be implemented until the collaborative can be solidified through a memorandum of understanding (MOU) of participating agencies. Examples of collaboratives exist in some counties of California as well as other states. Each critical incident response team protocol is customized to meet the unique needs of the agencies participating.RejectedIPA ongoing discussions with PPD Command Staff.
Barnes 2009BarnesOIR#1Investigation - Critical IncidentWe recommend that the Department modify its officer-involved shooting protocols to ensure that training personnel are part of the rollout team.Partially - Policy RequiredPotential policy change from "may" to "will."
Barnes 2009BarnesOIR#2Training - Critical Incident InvestigationsWe recommend that investigators assigned to conduct interviews of personnel in officer-involved shooting investigations be trained in the deleterious consequences of leading questions in these investigations. We further recommend that the investigators’ supervisors be tasked with reviewing interviews of officers involved in shootings to ensure that such a practice does not occur.FullyNeed to review next completed OIS investigation for continued compliance.
Barnes 2009BarnesOIR#3Investigation - Critical IncidentWe recommend that the Department formalize its protocols for promoting the cooperation of witnesses while acknowledging their rights under the prevailing circumstances. One option is to use a form and waiver system that clarifies the status of witnesses and their options about traveling to the station to be interviewed. We further recommend that investigators assigned to officer-involved investigations be debriefed on the investigation’s purpose and instructed to refrain from using certain interrogative techniques in interviewing potential witnesses to the incident.FullyNeed to review next completed OIS investigation for continued compliance.
Barnes 2009BarnesOIR#4Training - Critical Incident InvestigationsWe recommend that the Department modify its officer-involved shooting investigative protocols so that interviewers routinely use diagrams to obtain a permanent account of the sequential positioning of involved personnel and civilians.FullyNeed to review next completed OIS investigation for continued compliance.
Barnes 2009BarnesOIR#5Investigation - Critical IncidentWe recommend that PPD investigators eliminate any reference to the Grossman/Lewinski constructs and focus their interviews on learning the involved officers’ observations, positioning, actions, decision making and state of mind using basic open- ended and fact neutral who, what, when, where, how and why questions.FullyIPA confirmed based on review of McClain OIS
Barnes 2009BarnesOIR#6Investigation - Critical IncidentThe Department should develop consistent protocols on whether, prior to being interviewed, involved personnel will be shown video capturing the incident. One possible protocol for the Department to consider would be to interview the involved personnel during a walkthrough of the event, allow them to view the video, and then follow up by asking if the video caused them to refresh their recollection about the incident.Pending ActionIPA to determine status of next session of negotiations
Barnes 2009BarnesOIR#7TransparencyWe recommend that the Department continue its commitment to transparency in providing timely information to the public, but redouble its efforts to ensure that such information is completely accurate before doing so.FullyNeed to review next completed OIS investigation for continued compliance.
Barnes 2009BarnesOIR#8Administrative ReviewWe recommend that internal supervisory protocols be developed to ensure that the administrative presentation to command staff initiate identification of tactical issues, that use of diagrams, trajectory of bullets, location of casings and other forensic evidence be used to assist in explaining the positioning of individuals at various times during the evidence, that the reference to “force science” issues be eliminated, and that the presenter has a mastery not only of the presentation itself but the complete investigative file so that questions raised by command staff can be adequately addressed.FullyNeed to review next completed OIS investigation for continued compliance.
Barnes 2009BarnesOIR#9Record Retention, Administrative ReviewIn order for the Department to benefit from past shooting incidents, it should ensure enforcement of its officer- involved shooting investigation retention policy so that such investigations are preserved at least throughout the career of each officer. In addition, the administrative review should routinely closely examine past officer-involved shootings or other relevant history of involved officers to identify any commonalities of tactical decision making and decisions to deploy deadly force.FullyNeed to review next completed OIS investigation for continued compliance.
Barnes 2009BarnesOIR#10Administrative ReviewWe recommend that in officer-involved shooting reviews, training staff be involved in the identification of tactical issues to be presented by Professional Standards investigators and be part of the subsequent discussion and assessment of the tactical decision making by involved personnelFullyNeed to review next completed OIS investigation for continued compliance.
Barnes 2009BarnesOIR#11Administrative ReviewWe recommend that each member of the executive review team be provided access to the officer-involved shooting investigative file prior to the executive review.FullyNeed to review next completed OIS investigation for continued compliance.
Barnes 2009BarnesOIR#12, McDade OIR#22Administrative ReviewThe Department should require that a timely and robust action plan be devised in every officer-involved shooting. The plan should address issues that may have presented themselves in each of the following areas: shooting scene/rollout response, investigative issues, individual accountability (potential violations of policy), tactical issues, supervisory issues, training issues, equipment issues, and information to the public. In addition to incorporating different strategies and methods to address each issue ranging from policy development to discipline, training, and counseling, the action plan should ensure that each impacted unit or individual where issues have been identified is briefed about any concerns raised during the executive review process. The Department should further ensure that an effective and timely feedback loop be devised so that the executive review recommendations incorporated into the action plan are implemented.Partially - Policy RequiredIPA to verify PPD has created an action plan for McClain OIS and review plan for thoroughness. Creation of adjutant position for DC could assist in impementation efforts.
Barnes 2009BarnesOIR#13Training - UOFWe recommend that the Department require that a training bulletin be devised for every officer-involved shooting that addresses issues identified through the review process.FullyNeed to review UOFRB findings regularly for compliance.
Barnes 2009BarnesOIR#14Administrative ReviewThe Department should develop protocols that provide a mechanism to carefully assess the status and assignment of officers involved in officer-involved shootings during the pendency of the investigation.FullyIPA to confirm and assess.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#1Policy - UOFThe PPD should consider restructuring use of force policies into categories of application, investigation, monitoring, and training/maintenance as described above. If the department chooses not to restructure their policies to incorporate all decisions and applications of use of force into one policy, the department should ensure relevant and consistent use of force language is included in each of the policies that incorporates legal requirements, decision making, and values of the department and community.FullyPolicy 300; entire policy manual is online.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#2Policy - UOFThe department should adopt a standardized framework for all use of force policies that includes consistent terms, definitions, and procedural detail.FullyPolicy 300; entire policy manual is online.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#3Policy - OtherThe department should clearly identify adopted and revised dates on each policy.FullyNone Needed
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#4TransparencyThe department should make available to the public, through its web site, all policies related to use of force. The policies should be the current versions approved by the department.FullyPolicy 300; entire policy manual is online.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#5Policy - OtherThe PPD should implement a process or system for regularly reviewing and updating all departmental policy, as well as for ensuring that updated policies are shared on the department’s website.RejectedOngoing policy recommendations
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#6Policy - UOFThe definitions section (300.1.1) should be revised to include and directly quote the definitions used in the legislative changes outlined in AB 392. It should also include the definition of great bodily injury used in Government Code 12525.2.14Fully"It is the policy of the Pasadena Police Department to use only the force that is objectively reasonable to effectively bring an incident under control, while protecting the safety of the officer, subject, and others. The use of physical force is a serious responsibility that shall be exercised judiciously and with respect for human rights and dignity and for the sanctity of every human life. The Department recognizes the value of all human life and dignity without bias." "Serious Bodily Injury – A bodily injury that involved a substantial risk of death, unconsciousness, protracted and obvious disfigurement, or protracted loss of impairment of the function of a bodily member or organ (Government Code 12525.2(d)). Serious bodily injury should not, however, mean that one must see or require medical treatment at a hospital (e.g., a person experiences a loss of consciousness or because the injury is such that is not immediately apparent that hospital care is necessary)."
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#7Policy - UOFSection 300.2.1, “duty to Intercede,” currently requires “an officer who observes another employee use force that exceeds the degree of force permitted by law should promptly report these observations to a supervisor.” While the intent appears to require all employees to report observed excessive force, the language only requires that officers report and not other members of the department. The requirement should require all employees to report.FullyIPA to ensure violations of policy are addressed by PD on an onging basis.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#8Policy - OtherSection 300.2.1 “duty to Intercede,” only requires reporting of violations of law and does not require reporting of violations of policy. This policy should require employees to also report violations of policy related to the use of unreasonable force.FullyIPA to ensure violations of policy are addressed by PD on an onging basis.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#9Policy - UOFSection 300.3 and the subsequent subsections should be revised to ensure that language and intent of AB 392 is adequately and appropriately incorporated into policy including: a. The continued reference and expansion of the commitment to respecting human rights and dignity. b. The use of other available resources, tools, and techniques as alternatives to the use of force, if reasonably safe and feasible. c. Use of force shall be evaluated from the perspective of a reasonable officer in the same situation. d. Recognition that individuals with physical, mental health, developmental, or intellectual disabilities are more likely to experience greater levels of force during police interactions.Fullya. "The Department recognizes the value of all human life and dignity without bias (Government Code § 7286)." b. 300.3.5 DE-ESCALATION. c. "The reasonableness of force will be judged from the perspective of a reasonable officer on the scene at the time of the incident." d. When time and circumstances reasonably permit, officers should consider whether a subject's lack of compliance is a deliberate attempt to resist or an inability to comply based on factors including but not limited to: • Medical conditions • Mental impairment • Developmental disability • Physical limitation • Language barrier
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#10Policy - UOFTo stay consistent with the direction of the chief of police and POST, the department should remove the use of carotid control hold in policy except when there is a risk of great bodily injury or death and no other reasonable alternatives exist.FullyContinued review of categorical use of force investigations.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#11Policy - UOFSection 300.4 defines the use of deadly force and should be revised to mirror the language in AB 392 to include the requirement for officers to make reasonable efforts to identify themselves as peace officers and to warn if deadly force may be used unless the officers believe the person is aware of those facts.FullyContinued review of categorical use of force investigations.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#12Policy - UOFSection 300.4.1 states, “Officers should not shoot at any part of a vehicle in an attempt to disable the vehicle.” The policy should allow this if there is a tactical need and approved by a supervisor.FullyIPA to facilitate DC Chute meeting with CPOC policy subcommittee to discuss PPD thoughts regarding Burbank PD policy.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#13Investigation - UOFSection 300.5.2 defines when a use of force report is to be completed by a supervisor. The use of force circumstance requiring reporting should be inclusive of all categorical use of force options available to officers.FullyIPA to monitor categorical use of force reporting by PD supervisors.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#14Policy - UOFThe policy should clearly state the affirmative requirement to attempt de- escalation tactics when safe and feasible. With de-escalation a necessary function of several other policies, the department may wish to consider creating a separate policy for de- escalation.FullyContinued review of categorical use of force investigations.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#15Policy - UOFThe policy should describe and affirm the importance of force appropriateness. Examples include statements such as: officer use force that is appropriate to the threat or resistance of the subject; the level of force used must reflect the totality of the circumstance surrounding the situation; and officers use only the minimum force necessary.FullyPolicy 300; entire policy manual is online.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#16Policy - OtherThe PPD should document when officers point their firearms at individuals. As noted in the NPF report on the “Analysis of 2018 Use of Deadly Force by the Phoenix Police Department,”16 agencies that require officers to document when they point their guns at individuals, but do not shoot, have significantly lower rates of fatal OIS.17 Further, knowing the “universe” of incidents in which officers point their guns is necessary in order to make sense of observed racial disparities in OIS.18 Many agencies require their officers to document when they point their guns at subjects, and the NPF can assist PPD with sample polices if necessary.FullyIPA to follow up on policy implementation.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#17Policy - OtherThe PPD should include in the policy that it will publish use of force review board findings while complying with the confidentially requirements mandated in law.RejectedIPA to discuss publication of OIS UOFRB findings with Chief of Police.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#18TransparencyThe department should make this policy available to the public on the department’s web site.FullyPolicy 300; entire policy manual is online.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#19Policy - UOFThe application and reporting requirements in this policy should be incorporated into Policy 300 Use of Force. If the department chooses to keep the policies separate, this policy should be revised to mirror the language and intent of Policy 300.FullyPolicy 309.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE This policy provides guidelines for the issuance and use of TASER devices. The use of physical force is a serious responsibility that shall be exercised judiciously and with respect for human rights and dignity and for the sanctity of every human life. The Department recognizes the value of all human life and dignity without bias.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#20Policy - UOFThe policy statement should be revised to discuss how the use of a CEW fits into less lethal options in effectively bringing an incident under control while protecting the officer, subject, and community.FullyPolicy 309.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE This policy provides guidelines for the issuance and use of TASER devices. The use of physical force is a serious responsibility that shall be exercised judiciously and with respect for human rights and dignity and for the sanctity of every human life. The Department recognizes the value of all human life and dignity without bias.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#21Policy - UOFThe policy should include a definitions section that clearly defines the CEW, passive resistance, active resistance, violent, and potentially violent persons.RejectedThese terms are not used.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#22Policy - UOFThe policy should define and describe elevated risk groups, their increased risk potential, and discuss the deployment of a CEW involving individuals in these groups. Offices should not be prohibited from using a CEW on such persons but should limit use to exceptional circumstances.FullyPolicy 309 Conducted Energy Weapon (Taser) 309.5 SPECIAL DEPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS The use of the TASER device on certain individuals should generally be avoided unless the totality of the circumstances indicates that other available options reasonably appear ineffective or would present a greater danger to the officer, the subject or others, and the officer reasonably believes that the need to control the individual outweighs the risk of using the device. This includes: (a) Individuals who are known to be pregnant. (b) Elderly individuals or obvious juveniles. (c) Individuals who are handcuffed or otherwise restrained. (d) Individuals who have been recently sprayed with a flammable chemical agent or who are otherwise in close proximity to any known combustible vapor or flammable material, including alcohol-based oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray. (e) Individuals whose position or activity may result in collateral injury (e.g., falls from height, operating vehicle, etc.) The TASER device shall not be used to psychologically torment, elicit statements or punish any individual.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#23TechnologyThe department should require by policy periodic downloading of CEW data. Regular downloading consistent with the manufacturer’s recommendations will ensure the CEW’s have updated firmware, synced time clocks, and provide the department with the ability to reconcile any discrepancies with use of force reports.Fully309.9 TRANSFER PROCEDURES Members shall dock their issued CEW battery for automated upload of data files monthly, after a deployment or when directed by a supervisor to ensure the timely transfer of data. This procedure ensures the regular downloading of CEW data consistent with the manufacturer's recommendations. With monthly docking of the CEW battery, this will ensure the CEW's have updated firmware, synced time clocks, and provide the department with the ability to reconcile any discrepancies with use of force reports.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#24Policy - UOF, Investigation - Critical Incident, Investigation - UOFThe policy title, purpose, and policy statement should clearly identify that this policy sets guidelines and procedures for the investigation of an incident that includes the use of deadly force and/or the serious injury or death of a person that involved department employee(s) and not just officer involved shootings. The definition of deadly force should mirror the revised definition in Policy 300 Use of Force.FullyPolicy 310 Officer-Involved Shootings and In-Custody Death Investigations 310.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE This policy is to establish protocols for the investigation of incidents in which a police officer discharges his/her firearm during the course and scope of employment, or when any use of force that creates a substantial risk of causing death or serious bodily injury, including but not limited to the discharge of a firearm (Penal Code 835). The use of physical force is a serious responsibility that shall be exercised judiciously and with respect for human rights and dignity and for the sanctity of every human life. The Department recognizes the value of all human life and dignity without bias.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#25Policy - UOFThe policy should include a policy statement that is consistent in format and language with all other use of force policies.FullyPolicy 310 Officer-Involved Shootings and In-Custody Death Investigations 310.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE This policy is to establish protocols for the investigation of incidents in which a police officer discharges his/her firearm during the course and scope of employment, or when any use of force that creates a substantial risk of causing death or serious bodily injury, including but not limited to the discharge of a firearm (Penal Code 835). The use of physical force is a serious responsibility that shall be exercised judiciously and with respect for human rights and dignity and for the sanctity of every human life. The Department recognizes the value of all human life and dignity without bias.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#26Administrative ReviewThe policy states that the administrative review should include an evaluation of department policies and procedures. The department should include in the administrative investigation, an evaluation of training, equipment, and supervision so that the requirements of Policy 302 Use of Force Review Boards are met.FullyNone Needed
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#27Policy - UOFThe policy should include a policy statement that is consistent in format and language with all other use of force policies.FullyNone Needed
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#28Policy - UOFSection 312.6 Report of Firearm Discharge should be moved to Policy 300 Use of Force.RejectedRemains stand alone section
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#29Policy - UOFSection 312.3.1(c) allows an officer to use an automatic weapon, heavy caliber rifle, gas, or other types of chemical weapon with supervisor approval. Subsection C should include a requirement that officers either must have completed training prior to use or may use with approval from a supervisor. While other sections within policy require officers to complete training prior to using weapons, this section does not reinforce the training requirement.Fully312.3.1 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS (a) Officers shall not unnecessarily display or handle any firearm. (b) Officers shall be governed by all rules and regulations pertaining to the use of the range and shall obey all orders issued by the Range master. Officers shall not dry fire or practice quick draws except under Range master supervision (c) Officers shall not use any automatic weapon, heavy caliber rifles, gas or other types of chemical weapon (from the armory), unless they have been properly trained, except with approval of a supervisor, or barring exigent circumstances.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#30Policy - OtherSection 312.3.2 Storage of Firearms at Home should be retitled to Storage of Firearms away from Police Facilities to be more inclusive and reinforce the importance of always securing firearms.FullyPolicy 312.3.2
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#31Policy - OtherSection 312.3.3 Alcohol and Drugs restrict officers from carrying a weapon if they have “consumed alcohol or taken any narcotics or any other substance that would tend to adversely affect the officer’s senses or judgment.” To reduce any confusion related to the definition of narcotic and to the policy, the PPD should remove the term “narcotic” and replace with “any substance.”RejectedNot completed.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#32Policy - UOFThe policy should include a policy statement that is consistent in format and language with all other use of force policies. The policy should state the importance of weapons safety and proficiency to the safety of officers and the public.RejectedNot completed. Per PD range training ensures officers are aware of importance of weapons safety and proficiency.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#33Policy - OtherSection 318.1.1 Prohibited Uses and section 318.6 et al Apprehension Guidelines, should be removed from this policy and included in the revised Policy 300.RejectedRemains stand alone section
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#34Policy - UOFSection 318.1.1 Prohibited Use should include the use of canines for crowd control. The use of canines for crowd control is not consistent with best practices in policing.FullyPolicy 318.1.1 Prohibited Use (g) Crowd Control.
NPF UOF 2020NPFUOF#35Policy - UOFSection 318.6(d) Apprehension Guidelines, states “The individual(s) are suspected of a felony crime and or attempting to flee the scene of are suspected of concealing themselves so as to elude capture.” The word “of” above, after the word “scene,” should be changed to “or” to clarify policy meaning.FullyPolicy 318.6.
IPA UOF 2023IPA UOF Inv Review #1Training - UOFPPD Officer Categorical uses of force.Pending ActionIPA to monitor use-of-force training. Defensive tactics training - July 2023; Crowd Control - December 2023.
IPA UOF 2023IPA UOF Inv Review #2Administrative ReviewIssues and Concerns Identified Regarding Use of Force Review Board Recommendations & Findings by Chief of Police.Pending ActionIPA to monitor UOFRB & Disciplinary Review Boards for continued use of Best Practices.
IPA UOF 2023IPA UOF Inv Review #3Administrative ReviewThe Department should create a Force Review Board (FRB) checklist to act as a guideline to ensure that issues relating to the quality of use-of-force investigations are addressed and considered by the FRB.Pending ActionIPA to create and share sample FRB checklist for PD consideration.
IPA UOF 2023IPA UOF Inv Review #4Administrative ReviewThe Critical Performance Unit Sergeant should provide more robust information in the PowerPoint presentation that is made to the Use-of-Force Review BoardPartially - Training RequiredIPA to discuss with PSU staff.
IPA UOF 2023IPA UOF Inv Review #5Administrative ReviewThe Department should update its Body Worn Camera policies and training to ensure consistency as to when BWC’s are activated and deactivated.Pending ActionIPA to collect sample BWC activation and deactivation policies for PD consideration.
IPA UOF 2023IPA UOF Inv Review #6Training - UOFThe Department should continue to monitor and attempt to reduce the risk of officers using closed-handed fist strikes to obtain compliance.Partially - Training RequiredIPA to monitor defensive tactics training - July 2023; and examine future categorical use-of-force cases to determine if PPD has been able to reduce incidents of use of closed handed fist strikes.
IPA UOF 2023IPA UOF Inv Review #7Investigation - UOFThe quality of use-of-force investigations can be improved. The Department should implement specific time deadlines for supervisors to complete use-of-force investigations.Partially - Training RequiredIPA to review categorical use of force investigations for quality.
IPA UOF 2023IPA UOF Inv Review #8Administrative ReviewThe timeliness of the investigation and adjudication of use-of force cases is excellent and needs to continue[.FullyIPA to continue to review categorical use of force investigations for timeliness
IPA UOF 2023IPA UOF Inv Review #9Administrative Review[Esure] Critical Incident debriefings do not take place if there is any indication of an out-of-policy use of force.FullyIPA to continue to review categorical use of force investigations to ensure critical incident debriefings are timely and do not interfere with PSU investigations.
IPA UOF 2023IPA UOF Inv. Review #10Policy - UOFCurrent PPD policy regarding the permissible use of the Taser as an intermediate weapon is inconsistent with federal Constitutional Law and PPD training.RejectedIPA to review & consider PPD position
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#1Investigation - Critical IncidentPPD should revise its investigative protocols to ensure that its Administrative Investigation of a deadly force incident is not delayed because of either prosecutive review or civil proceedings. Pending ActionIPA to discuss implementation with Chief & City Manager.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#2Policy - OtherPPD should align Policy 310 with its current practice of conducting criminal investigations of critical incidents / officer-involved shootings in-house and remove the expectation that the Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department conduct these investigations.FullyPPD Response: The PPD resumed control of OIS investigations during this incident – on 8/15/2020. PPD subsequently amended Policy 310 to reflect the change in criminal investigative protocols
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#3Administrative ReviewPPD should ensure that any after-action plan relating to supervisory performance issues include a briefing of supervisors on decisions that went well and decisions that could have been improved.FullyIPA to asses for next critical incident investigation.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#4Investigation - Critical IncidentPPD should revise its critical incident protocols to ensure that once an officerinvolved shooting scene is secure, PPD should direct any available officer to immediately sequester involved officers and prevent those officers from selfassigned roles in actual evidence collection.FullyIPA to assess for next critical incident investigation.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#5Investigation - Critical IncidentPPD should revise current policy to explicitly require that all involved officers, to the extent possible without compromising public safety, shall be observed and sequestered until they are able to provide a Public Safety Statement to a supervisor, and then removed from the immediate scene of an officer-involved shooting, unless there is a special need to assist with evidence location.FullyIPA to assess for next critical incident investigation.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#6Investigation - Critical IncidentPPD should continue to sequester and monitor involved officers until they provide an interview prior to being released from duty on the date of the incident.FullyIPA to assess for next critical incident investigation.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#7Investigation - Critical IncidentPPD should amend its critical incident investigation policy to require prior to “end of shift” interviews of involved and witness officers, except in extraordinary circumstances, such as when an officer is significantly injured.FullyIPA to assess for next critical incident investigation.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#8Collective Bargaining AgreementThe City should revisit its agreement with the PPOA requiring the Department to preview recorded evidence with officers prior to being interviewed about officer-involved shootings.Pending ActionIPA to determine status of next session of negotiations.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#9Training - OtherPPD should direct officers to follow PPD investigative protocols when conducting any investigation. When deficiencies are identified, PPD should conduct refresher training on these investigative protocols immediately.Partially - Training RequiredIPA to assess. IPA will need notification of time of annual critical incident investigation training.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#10Policy - OtherPPD should consider developing policy setting out expectations for interviews, including the prohibition on interviewing witnesses together.FullyIPA to review and report.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#11Investigation - Critical IncidentPPD should make every effort to contact potential witnesses to critical incidents and gather all available evidence, including using technology to allow witnesses to report or submit information anonymously and conducting a search for publicly available video content.FullyIPA to assess for next critical incident investigation.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#12Training - Critical Incident InvestigationsIn the recommended training, PPD should make clear that witnesses are not suspects: officers should not run a witness’ identity or vehicle plates unless officers can articulate a rationale for doing so.RejectedIPA to review and assess.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#13TransparencyWhen witness statements are paraphrased or otherwise referenced in an officer-involved shooting investigation, press releases, or other media, PPD should ensure that they are a complete representation of the witness’ statement.FullyIPA to asssess for next critical incident investigation.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#14Training - Critical Incident InvestigationsPPD should ensure that critical incident administrative investigations conduct thorough interviews of all involved and witness personnel to obtain a full and complete account of all salient aspects of the incident. FullyIPA to assess for next critical incident investigation.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#15Investigation - Critical IncidentPPD should reference and include all documentation used in Administrative Investigations in reports and case files.FullyIPA to assess for next critical incident investigation.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#16Administrative ReviewPPD should ensure that critical incident Administrative Investigations address all potential violations of policy identified.FullyIPA to assess for next critical incident investigation.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#17Administrative ReviewWhen evaluating uses of deadly force, the Use of Force Review Board’s analysis should consider the relevant factors to be considered under the Department’s deadly force policy and all available evidence to thoroughly assess the decision to use force.FullyIPA to assess for next critical incident investigation.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#18Policy - OtherPPD should revise its force review policies to require formal evaluation of any attendant foot pursuits and evaluating whether or not officers’ actions align with the Department’s Foot Pursuit Policy.FullyIPA to assess for next critical incident investigation.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#19Training - OtherPPD should conduct frequent and regular training on the Foot Pursuit Policy, including the preference for surveillance and containment over engagement in foot pursuits.FullyIPA to assess.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#20Policy - OtherThe Community Police Oversight Commission should convene community conversations to formally discuss formally discuss and consider the pros and cons of PPD’s use of pretext stops, especially with regard to minor equipment violations.Pending ActionIPA to assist CPOC in development of methodology for policy review. Pending CPOC workgroup to meeting in August-September 2023.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#21Investigation - Critical IncidentPPD should write policy that clearly defines the role of a PPOA representative at critical incident crime scenes.Pending ActionIPA to assess policy changes.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#22Community OutreachPPD should prioritize community outreach, including timely implementation of the recommendations in the Board memorandum relating to improving community relations.Pending ActionIPA to assess for next critical incident investigation.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#23TransparencyPPD Critical Incident Briefing videos should only include information known to be accurate and omit information of limited relevance such as the criminal history of the individuals.FullyIPA to assess for next critical incident investigation.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#24Training - UOFPPD should evaluate the necessity of handcuffing severely injured subjects and consider developing training on this topic.Pending ActionIPA to assess.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#25Policy - OtherPPD should conduct a routine inventory of all first aid equipment issued to officers to ensure that first aid kits are complete and include chest seals. [Equipment]Pending ActionIPA to assess.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#26TransparencyPPD should create a workplan to implement the recommendations that have come from this incident to include task owners and a timeline.Pending ActionIPA assisting.
McClain 2023 McClainOIS#27TransparencyPPD should establish a mechanism to track progress and ensure completion of tasks, including providing regular public status updates on the workplan for transparency and accountability.Pending ActionIPA assisting.